Capitolo 3. Regole per l'interpretazione della Bibbia (Ermeneutica)


Regola 1 - Interpreta seguendo il senso esatto delle parole.
Esempio 1A
Esempio 1B
Regola 2 - Interpreta secondo il contesto biblico
Esempio 2A
Esempio 2B
Esempio 2C
Regola 3 - Interpreta secondo il contesto storico e culturale
Esempio 3A
Esempio 3B
Regola 4 - Interpreta secondo il normale uso delle parole nella lingua
Esempio 4A
Esempio 4B
Regola 5 - Comprendi lo scopo delle parabole e la differenza tra una parabola e un'allegoria
Esempio 5A
Esempio 5B

We already learned about the "3 Cs": content, context, cross-reference. We want to expand that now by delving briefly into biblical hermeneutics, whose goal is to discover the meaning intended by the original author (and Author!). While many applications of a passage are valid, only one interpretation is valid. The scripture itself says this by saying that no scripture is of any private interpretation (2 Pe.1:20 KJV «Knowing this first, that no prophesy of scripture is of any private interpretation.»). Certain rules are helps toward discovering the correct meaning; by ignoring these rules people have brought much trouble on themselves and their followers. 2 Pe.3:16 « which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction.»

Come scopriamo il significato di un passaggio? Diciamo che la tua attenzione è attratta da un verso in particolare il cui significato non ti è chiaro. Come lo studi? Tieni a mente queste regole:

Regola 1 - Interpreta seguendo il senso esatto delle parole.

Più precisi riusciamo ad essere con il significato originale delle parole, miglore sarà la nostra interpretazione. Cerca di trovare il significato esatto delle parole chiave seguendo questi punti:

  1. Definizione. Guardate la definizione in un dizionario Greco o Ebraico. Per i verbi, il modo è ugualmente importantissimo.

  2. Referenze. Compare scripture with scripture. Seeing how the same Greek or Hebrew word (not the English word) is used in scripture may clarify or throw new light on the definition. How does the same author use this word elsewhere? Other authors? Your reference tools may give you uses of the word in non-biblical documents, as well. Why do we have to go to the original languages; why isn't the English word good enough? Because more than one Greek word may be translated into the same English word, and the Greek words may have different shades of meaning.

Esempio 1A

Jn.20:17 "Touch me not" (KJV) sounds harsh, doesn't it? Sounds like Jesus doesn't want to be touched now that He is risen, that He is too holy or something. But that doesn't seem right, so let's look it up in Spiros Zodhiates' The Complete Word Study New Testament (AMG Publishers, 1991).

Definition: Turning to John 20:17, above the word "Touch" we see "pim680." The letters give us a code for the part of speech, and the number refers to Strong's dictionary reference. Let's look up the definition (p. 879). "680. Haptomai; from hapto (681), touch. Refers to such handling of an object as to exert a modifying influence upon it... Distinguished from pselaphao (5584), which actually only means to touch the surface of something. " Now look up "pim." The grammar codes in Zodhiates come right after Revelation; on p. 849 we see that pim stands for "present imperative active (80)". On p.857, "Present Imperative. In the active voice, it may indicate a command to do something in the future which involves continuous or repeated action or, when it is negated, a command to stop doing something. " This is a negative command, so it is to stop doing something that is already occurring. So, what have we found?

Maria sta già trattenendo Gesù, e lui dice di smetteredi trattenerlo!

Esempio 1B

In James 5:14, Elders are told to pray and anoint someone who is sick. What is this anointing?

Definition of aleipho (218) - "to oil" (Strong's); but we also have another Greek word translated "anoint", chrio (5548) - "to smear or rub with oil, i.e. to consecrate to an office or religious service" (Strong's). Since it's a verb, consider the tense also, "apta" aorist participle active. "The aorist participle expresses simple action, as opposed to continuous action...When its relationship to the main verb is temporal, it usually signifies action prior to that of the main verb." (Zodhiates p.851)

  • Riferimenti di aleipho:

    1. Mt 6,17 Invece, quando tu digiuni, profumati la testa

    2. Mc 16,1 [le donne] comprarono oli aromatici per andare a ungerlo.

    3. Mc 6,13 Ed essi ... ungevano con olio molti infermi e li guarivano.

    4. Lc 7,38 [...] [i piedi di lui] li baciava e li cospargeva di profumo.

    5. Gv 12,3 Maria [...] ne cosparse i piedi di Gesù, poi li asciugò con i suoi capelli

  • Riferimenti di chrio:

    1. Lc 4,18 «Lo Spirito del Signore è sopra di me; per questo mi ha consacrato con l'unzionee mi ha mandato a portare ai poveri il lieto annuncio [...]»

    2. At 4,27 Gesù, che tu hai consacrato

    3. At 10,38 Dio consacrò in Spirito Santo e potenza Gesù

    4. 2 Cor 1,21 È Dio stesso che ci conferma, insieme a voi, in Cristo e ci ha conferito l'unzione

So what's the difference between aleipho and chrio? Look back over the cross-references and the definitions, and sum up the difference: "aleipho" is a practical use of oil and "chrio" is a spiritual

Un'illustrazione (sebbene non venga usata questa parola) dell'uso pratico dell'olio in quel tempo, l'abbiamo quando il buon Samaritano curò l'uomo picchiato dai ladri e versò olio e vino sulle sue ferite. Dunque l'olio veniva usato a scopo medicinale ai tempi di Gesù.

Now let's apply what we just learned by this word study to James 5:14 "Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord."Is "anointing" spiritual or practical? Practical!

And the tense in Greek, the aorist participle, would be better translated "having anointed," so the order is the anointing first, then the prayer ("in the name of the Lord"refers to the prayer, not the anointing). James 5 is saying that the elders should give the sick person medicine and pray for him in the name of the Lord. Doesn't that express a beautiful balance of practical and spiritual in our God!